《リアルスコープ》東京の地下鉄の歴史!地下鉄工事(工法)の変化の過程や現在の路線図になるまでの経緯を時系列で紹介!

※潜入!リアルスコープハイパー 2013年9月28日放送分より

今回はJR、東京メトロ全面協力、
新幹線&地下鉄の裏側スペシャル。

現在東京の地下には、
東京メトロ、都営地下鉄を合わせ、
全13路線全長304.1kmにも及ぶ線路が走っている。

まさに東京の地下はクモの巣状になっている。

地下鉄の疑問!
東京の地下鉄ってどのように掘られたの?

初期の地下鉄工事「開削工法」
日本初の地下鉄・銀座線開通

そもそも東京に地下鉄を作ろう、
という構想が持たれたのは、
今から凡そ90年前
大正から昭和に移る時代である。

この頃、東京の人口は急激に増え、
街に人が溢れかえっていた。

その為、公共の乗り物であった、
路面電車は超満員。

そこで日本初の地下鉄(後の銀座線)が、
上野~浅草間に誕生した。

1925年地下鉄工事は着工したが、
当時、地下鉄を作るのは非常に大変だった。

工事の様子をみると、
ツルハシ片手に手作業で土を掘り、
掘られた土はトロッコで外へ持ちだされた。

この頃は機械がない為、
全て工事は手作業で行われた。

この工事は開削工法と呼ばれるもので、
まず地面に外壁となる杭を打ち込み、
そして道路から穴を掘っていき、
地下でトンネルを作り、
穴を埋め直すといった手順を踏む。

だから銀座線は今も、
道路沿いの浅い所(深さ)を走っている。

このような非常に手間のかかる工法だったので、
当時は地下鉄を1km繋ぐのに、
現在の価格で100億円莫大な費用がかかった。

その為、すぐに路線を延ばすのは難しかった。

大手デパートと提携した地下鉄工事

そこで動いたのが、デパートの三越

工事費を負担するという約束で、
三越前駅」という駅名を獲得した。

これを機に、
松坂屋」「高島屋」「銀座松屋」といった、
大手デパートと提携し、
松坂屋がある上野広小路駅
高島屋がある日本橋駅
銀座松屋、銀座三越がある銀座駅と、
徐々に銀座線の路線は延長していった。

しかし予算面だけでなく、
地下鉄工事は技術面でも問題があった。

それは神田川の横断

地下鉄工事の難所①
「川の横断」

当時の開削工法は地上から掘る為、
地上が水面である河川は、
地下鉄工事の最大の敵となった。

そこで考えられたのが、
神田川は船が通る幅だけ残し、
川の両岸をせき止めるという方法であった。

川の両岸を一部せき止め、
せき止めた部分を開削工法で掘り、
川の下でトンネルを繋げるという工法が取られた。

こうして生まれた地下鉄。

開業当時は地下に電車が走るという珍しさから、
大混雑となり、
電車に乗るまでに一時間かかった。

改札はお金を入れれば木枠が回転する、
自動改札だった。

当時走っていた初期の地下鉄車両は「1000型電車」で、
地下鉄博物館に展示されている。

1000型電車」はモダンな黄色いデザインで全鋼鉄製。
当時の電車は木製が主流だったが、
地下での火災に耐えられるように鋼鉄で作られた。

そして1954年には丸ノ内線(池袋~御茶ノ水)が誕生。
更に1959年には新宿まで路線を伸ばし、
赤坂見附駅で銀座線と丸ノ内線が接続し、
乗り継ぎが可能となった。

その為、利用者は急増し、1日約20万人が、
地下鉄を利用した。

そんな丸ノ内線にも難関工事はあった。

それは国会議事堂周辺である。

地下鉄工事の難所②
「高い土地の横断」と「ルーフシールド工法」の誕生

国会議事堂周辺の土地は高台になっている為、
地上から掘り進める開削工法では、
深いトンネルが掘れない。

そこでより深くトンネルを掘る技術が誕生。

それはアーチ型の鋼鉄の枠を地下に埋め込み、
枠の内側を人が手作業で掘りながら、
枠を前に移動させていくというものである。

この工法であれば、
地上に既に建物があったとしても、
その下にトンネルを掘ることが可能になった。

鉄枠のアーチの屋根が上から落ちてくる土を、
防ぐ役割を果たしていた為、
ルーフシールド工法と呼ばれている。

この工法で1日平均1.2mのペースで掘り進め、
国会議事堂周辺の230mのトンネルを掘った。

相次ぐ地下鉄路線の開通

そして1960年台に入ると、
1964年の東京オリンピックの開催に伴い、
日本は高度経済成長期に突入し、
地下鉄の建設ラッシュが起きた。

1960年台だけで、
都営浅草線日比谷線東西線都営三田線千代田線
5路線が増えた。

技術も進歩し、
トンネルの掘削にドリルベルトコンベアが出現。
作業効率が格段に良くなった。

この頃には1番切符を買う為に徹夜する、
切符マニアと呼ばれる存在が出現した。

最新地下鉄工事「シールド工法」

それから凡そ半世紀。

現在では先端に付いた巨大カッターで、
トンネルを掘りながら同時に外壁を構築していく、
シールド工法が主流となり、
大深度地下と呼ばれる土地所有者が、
利用しないような40mを超える深い場所も、
掘れるようになった。

東京で一番深い地下鉄の駅
「都営大江戸線六本木駅」

ちなみに東京の地下鉄で一番深い場所は、
都営大江戸線の六本木駅で地下42.3mである。

ホームから地上に出るまで、
階段を使うと全部で262段もある。

地下鉄3路線が密着する駅
「副都心線新宿三丁目駅」

また、これだけクモの巣状になっている東京の地下鉄で、
トンネル同士が最も過密に接近している所がある。

それは3つの路線(都営新宿線、丸ノ内線、副都心線)が交差する、
新宿三丁目周辺である。

既に開通していた丸ノ内線と都営新宿線の間を、
ギリギリ縫うような形で、
新しく副都心線が開通。

そのギリギリ具合でいうと、
都営新宿線副都心線トンネルの間の距離は、
わずか11cmしかない。

ちなみに交差している所は、
副都心線の新宿三丁目駅ホームの真ん中らへんで、
その為、新宿三丁目のホームは、
都営新宿線のトンネルを避けるように、
少しアーチ状になっている。

《もうちょっと調べてみた&所感》

我々が何気無く普段乗車している地下鉄ですが、
そこには長い歴史が刻まれていたのですね。

特に銀座線は私もよく使うことがありますが、
地面に手作業で穴を掘って作っていたという事実に驚きです。

100m進むだけでも、
相当な労力とコストがかかったのではないでしょうか。

東京は短い間隔で地下鉄駅があるので、
車がなくても移動が容易で、
大変利便性が高くはありますが、
その背景には先人達の気の遠くなるような努力があったのですね。

オススメ関連記事

人気記事TOP5

              

    

139 Responses to “《リアルスコープ》東京の地下鉄の歴史!地下鉄工事(工法)の変化の過程や現在の路線図になるまでの経緯を時系列で紹介!”

  1. Title

    […]here are some hyperlinks to internet sites that we link to since we assume they’re worth visiting[…]

  2. Title

    […]The data mentioned in the post are a few of the most effective offered […]

  3. Title

    […]please stop by the web sites we stick to, including this one particular, because it represents our picks through the web[…]

  4. asdfsdfxcvxxasa より:

    Title

    […]here are some hyperlinks to sites that we link to for the reason that we assume they are really worth visiting[…]

  5. Title

    […]Sites of interest we’ve a link to[…]

  6. Title

    […]very few websites that transpire to become detailed below, from our point of view are undoubtedly effectively worth checking out[…]

  7. Title

    […]Every after in a though we decide on blogs that we read. Listed beneath are the most up-to-date sites that we opt for […]

  8. news より:

    Title

    […]that could be the finish of this write-up. Here you will discover some websites that we believe you will appreciate, just click the links over[…]

  9. Title

    […]usually posts some extremely interesting stuff like this. If you’re new to this site[…]

  10. Title

    […]the time to study or take a look at the material or web pages we’ve linked to beneath the[…]

  11. royal cbd より:

    Title

    […]below you’ll locate the link to some web sites that we feel you should visit[…]

  12. Anderson Maria より:

    Title

    […]here are some hyperlinks to internet sites that we link to mainly because we consider they’re worth visiting[…]

  13. canada pharmacy より:

    Title

    […]always a significant fan of linking to bloggers that I appreciate but really don’t get a good deal of link enjoy from[…]

  14. Title

    […]here are some links to websites that we link to since we believe they are worth visiting[…]

  15. sweeny tx より:

    Title

    […]here are some hyperlinks to sites that we link to due to the fact we feel they are worth visiting[…]

  16. Title

    […]just beneath, are several absolutely not associated websites to ours, on the other hand, they may be certainly really worth going over[…]

  17. Title

    […]just beneath, are several totally not associated internet sites to ours, on the other hand, they may be certainly worth going over[…]

  18. proven より:

    Title

    […]we prefer to honor many other internet internet sites on the net, even though they aren’t linked to us, by linking to them. Under are some webpages really worth checking out[…]

  19. Title

    […]Sites of interest we have a link to[…]

  20. Title

    […]Here is a good Weblog You may Come across Interesting that we Encourage You[…]

  21. Title

    […]Here are a number of the internet sites we suggest for our visitors[…]

  22. escort kadikoy より:

    Title

    […]one of our guests lately recommended the following website[…]

  23. Title

    […]Sites of interest we have a link to[…]

  24. các sàn forex より:

    Title

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a couple of unrelated data, nonetheless truly really worth taking a look, whoa did one find out about Mid East has got far more problerms also […]

  25. Visit our site より:

    Title

    […]please check out the internet sites we follow, such as this one particular, as it represents our picks from the web[…]

  26. film izle より:

    Title

    […]always a major fan of linking to bloggers that I appreciate but don’t get a lot of link adore from[…]

  27. film izle より:

    Title

    […]Every as soon as inside a even though we decide on blogs that we study. Listed below are the most up-to-date internet sites that we choose […]

  28. Title

    […]the time to study or visit the content material or internet sites we have linked to beneath the[…]

  29. casino より:

    Title

    […]that will be the end of this write-up. Here you’ll obtain some web pages that we believe you’ll appreciate, just click the hyperlinks over[…]

  30. Title

    […]always a major fan of linking to bloggers that I love but do not get a lot of link adore from[…]

  31. Drucker mieten より:

    Title

    […]Every as soon as inside a when we choose blogs that we study. Listed below would be the newest websites that we pick out […]

  32. Aaron Lal より:

    Title

    […]please visit the web pages we adhere to, including this one, because it represents our picks in the web[…]

  33. Title

    […]below you’ll uncover the link to some web-sites that we consider you should visit[…]

  34. my mega888 hack より:

    Title

    […]here are some links to web-sites that we link to since we feel they are really worth visiting[…]

  35. Teodoro Marenco より:

    Title

    […]Every when in a even though we decide on blogs that we read. Listed beneath would be the most up-to-date web pages that we choose […]

  36. mega888 point より:

    Title

    […]the time to study or visit the material or websites we’ve linked to below the[…]

  37. this hyperlink より:

    Title

    […]we prefer to honor lots of other web internet sites around the web, even though they aren’t linked to us, by linking to them. Below are some webpages really worth checking out[…]

  38. content

    […]This is very interesting[…]

  39. Title

    […]that could be the end of this article. Here you’ll locate some internet sites that we consider you will appreciate, just click the links over[…]

  40. Title

    […]here are some links to internet sites that we link to simply because we believe they’re really worth visiting[…]

  41. twitter profile より:

    Title

    […]check beneath, are some absolutely unrelated internet sites to ours, however, they are most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  42. 홀덤 より:

    Title

    […]one of our visitors recently suggested the following website[…]

  43. permainan slot より:

    Title

    […]Here are some of the web pages we recommend for our visitors[…]

  44. Title

    […]the time to study or stop by the material or web-sites we’ve linked to beneath the[…]

  45. portable power より:

    Title

    […]very few web-sites that occur to be in depth below, from our point of view are undoubtedly properly really worth checking out[…]

  46. fonts より:

    Title

    […]check below, are some totally unrelated websites to ours, having said that, they’re most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  47. Title

    […]usually posts some very exciting stuff like this. If you’re new to this site[…]

  48. cbd near me より:

    Title

    […]the time to read or pay a visit to the content or web sites we have linked to below the[…]

  49. Title

    […]Here is an excellent Blog You might Come across Exciting that we Encourage You[…]

  50. Title

    […]although web-sites we backlink to below are considerably not related to ours, we feel they may be truly really worth a go via, so possess a look[…]

  51. cbd for dogs より:

    Title

    […]always a large fan of linking to bloggers that I love but do not get a great deal of link really like from[…]

  52. capath より:

    Title

    […]although sites we backlink to beneath are considerably not related to ours, we really feel they may be truly really worth a go by, so have a look[…]

  53. best cbd oil より:

    Title

    […]Here is a great Blog You might Obtain Intriguing that we Encourage You[…]

  54. senior cat tree より:

    Title

    […]just beneath, are many totally not connected internet sites to ours, even so, they are certainly worth going over[…]

  55. Title

    […]Here are some of the websites we recommend for our visitors[…]

  56. Title

    […]Here are several of the web-sites we suggest for our visitors[…]

  57. cbd dog treats より:

    Title

    […]Here are a number of the web pages we advise for our visitors[…]

  58. Title

    […]although web-sites we backlink to beneath are considerably not connected to ours, we feel they may be truly really worth a go via, so possess a look[…]

  59. Title

    […]very handful of web sites that come about to be detailed below, from our point of view are undoubtedly effectively worth checking out[…]

  60. Title

    […]Sites of interest we have a link to[…]

  61. Title

    […]one of our visitors lately encouraged the following website[…]

  62. evolutiongaming より:

    Title

    […]check beneath, are some absolutely unrelated web-sites to ours, having said that, they’re most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  63. Geruson より:

    Title

    […]Here are a number of the web sites we advocate for our visitors[…]

  64. ZTE より:

    Title

    […]very few internet sites that take place to become in depth beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly very well really worth checking out[…]

  65. Mining より:

    Title

    […]always a large fan of linking to bloggers that I adore but really don’t get a whole lot of link love from[…]

  66. Title

    […]below you will discover the link to some web sites that we believe you must visit[…]

  67. Title

    […]very few web sites that take place to be detailed beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly properly worth checking out[…]

  68. 강남안마 より:

    Title

    […]The info mentioned in the report are a few of the best obtainable […]

  69. PD Training より:

    Title

    […]just beneath, are several totally not associated websites to ours, on the other hand, they are certainly really worth going over[…]

  70. Title

    […]here are some links to internet sites that we link to simply because we assume they are really worth visiting[…]

  71. Title

    […]the time to read or go to the content material or web-sites we have linked to beneath the[…]

  72. Title

    […]Here is a good Blog You may Obtain Interesting that we Encourage You[…]

  73. Title

    […]Here is a superb Blog You may Find Fascinating that we Encourage You[…]

  74. vancouver より:

    Title

    […]always a huge fan of linking to bloggers that I adore but really don’t get a whole lot of link love from[…]

  75. faberge eggs より:

    Title

    […]usually posts some really fascinating stuff like this. If you’re new to this site[…]

  76. loofah より:

    Title

    […]very handful of sites that happen to be comprehensive beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly well worth checking out[…]

  77. cigar clubs より:

    Title

    […]check below, are some absolutely unrelated web sites to ours, on the other hand, they are most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  78. click here より:

    Title

    […]very few sites that occur to become in depth below, from our point of view are undoubtedly very well worth checking out[…]

  79. Metabolism より:

    Title

    […]Every after inside a even though we opt for blogs that we read. Listed beneath are the latest web sites that we decide on […]

  80. Title

    […]Sites of interest we have a link to[…]

  81. Superslot より:

    Title

    […]check below, are some entirely unrelated sites to ours, on the other hand, they are most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  82. Title

    […]just beneath, are many totally not associated internet sites to ours, having said that, they’re surely really worth going over[…]

  83. Title

    […]The data mentioned inside the article are several of the best available […]

  84. survival food より:

    Title

    […]Here are a few of the web-sites we advise for our visitors[…]

  85. apply now より:

    Title

    […]just beneath, are various completely not connected internet sites to ours, having said that, they’re surely really worth going over[…]

  86. Title

    […]usually posts some incredibly intriguing stuff like this. If you are new to this site[…]

  87. Werden Bank より:

    Title

    […]Sites of interest we have a link to[…]

  88. Title

    […]we came across a cool web page that you just may possibly love. Take a look in the event you want[…]

  89. Viagra より:

    Title

    […]Sites of interest we’ve a link to[…]

  90. Title

    […]here are some links to web sites that we link to mainly because we feel they are worth visiting[…]

  91. Viagra cena より:

    Title

    […]always a big fan of linking to bloggers that I enjoy but do not get quite a bit of link appreciate from[…]

  92. Aaron Lal より:

    Title

    […]just beneath, are a lot of completely not related sites to ours, even so, they’re surely really worth going over[…]

  93. Transsexual Sex より:

    Title

    […]although sites we backlink to beneath are considerably not connected to ours, we feel they’re in fact really worth a go via, so possess a look[…]

  94. Title

    […]The information and facts mentioned in the article are a number of the best out there […]

  95. read more より:

    Title

    […]check beneath, are some completely unrelated web-sites to ours, even so, they’re most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  96. click より:

    Title

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a number of unrelated data, nevertheless genuinely really worth taking a look, whoa did one particular learn about Mid East has got far more problerms also […]

  97. Read More より:

    Title

    […]that would be the finish of this write-up. Right here you will obtain some web sites that we feel you’ll enjoy, just click the hyperlinks over[…]

  98. more より:

    Title

    […]one of our guests recently encouraged the following website[…]

  99. more より:

    Title

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a number of unrelated information, nevertheless seriously worth taking a search, whoa did 1 find out about Mid East has got a lot more problerms as well […]

  100. more より:

    Title

    […]please check out the websites we follow, which includes this one, because it represents our picks in the web[…]

  101. more より:

    Title

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a handful of unrelated information, nonetheless definitely really worth taking a look, whoa did 1 learn about Mid East has got additional problerms as well […]

  102. more より:

    Title

    […]here are some hyperlinks to internet sites that we link to for the reason that we believe they are really worth visiting[…]

  103. Kamagra żel より:

    Title

    […]check beneath, are some completely unrelated web-sites to ours, even so, they are most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  104. read here より:

    Title

    […]The facts mentioned inside the post are some of the very best offered […]

  105. Title

    […]one of our visitors lately advised the following website[…]

  106. Title

    […]one of our guests just lately advised the following website[…]

  107. Title

    […]here are some hyperlinks to sites that we link to mainly because we consider they’re really worth visiting[…]

  108. Title

    […]just beneath, are several totally not connected web pages to ours, nevertheless, they may be certainly really worth going over[…]

  109. Recette facile より:

    Title

    […]just beneath, are various absolutely not related web-sites to ours, even so, they are surely worth going over[…]

  110. Title

    […]Sites of interest we’ve a link to[…]

  111. Title

    […]check beneath, are some completely unrelated web sites to ours, on the other hand, they are most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  112. Title

    […]that will be the end of this post. Here you’ll discover some internet sites that we feel you will appreciate, just click the hyperlinks over[…]

  113. W88 より:

    Title

    […]the time to study or visit the subject material or web-sites we’ve linked to below the[…]

  114. Title

    […]please pay a visit to the web sites we adhere to, which includes this one, because it represents our picks in the web[…]

  115. Title

    […]below you will come across the link to some web-sites that we feel you need to visit[…]

  116. Title

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a few unrelated data, nonetheless seriously really worth taking a appear, whoa did one learn about Mid East has got much more problerms at the same time […]

  117. Title

    […]that may be the end of this report. Here you’ll uncover some internet sites that we believe you’ll value, just click the links over[…]

  118. Title

    […]very few web-sites that take place to become comprehensive beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly nicely really worth checking out[…]

  119. Title

    […]here are some links to sites that we link to since we assume they are worth visiting[…]

  120. Title

    […]very handful of internet websites that happen to be detailed beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly properly really worth checking out[…]

  121. Title

    […]always a huge fan of linking to bloggers that I adore but really don’t get a great deal of link enjoy from[…]

  122. Title

    […]that will be the end of this write-up. Here you will obtain some sites that we assume you will enjoy, just click the hyperlinks over[…]

  123. matka boss otg より:

    Title

    […]the time to study or pay a visit to the subject material or web sites we have linked to beneath the[…]

  124. alpha88 より:

    Title

    […]one of our visitors not long ago advised the following website[…]

  125. Title

    […]usually posts some extremely exciting stuff like this. If you are new to this site[…]

  126. slot online より:

    Title

    […]Every the moment in a whilst we decide on blogs that we read. Listed beneath are the most recent web pages that we opt for […]

  127. Title

    […]Here are several of the sites we recommend for our visitors[…]

  128. Title

    […]usually posts some pretty interesting stuff like this. If you’re new to this site[…]

  129. Title

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine several unrelated data, nonetheless actually really worth taking a look, whoa did a single learn about Mid East has got extra problerms as well […]

  130. Gym Near me より:

    Title

    […]Here is a good Blog You might Uncover Fascinating that we Encourage You[…]

  131. Title

    […]Here is a good Blog You might Find Interesting that we Encourage You[…]

  132. Title

    […]just beneath, are quite a few totally not connected sites to ours, even so, they are certainly worth going over[…]

  133. Title

    […]below you will come across the link to some web pages that we think you should visit[…]

  134. pc recycling より:

    Title

    […]although internet websites we backlink to below are considerably not connected to ours, we feel they are truly really worth a go as a result of, so possess a look[…]

  135. Title

    […]the time to read or pay a visit to the content or web-sites we’ve linked to below the[…]

  136. Title

    […]one of our guests lately suggested the following website[…]

  137. Title

    […]please take a look at the web sites we follow, including this one, because it represents our picks from the web[…]

  138. best delta 8 より:

    Title

    […]always a significant fan of linking to bloggers that I appreciate but really don’t get quite a bit of link love from[…]

  139. Title

    […]below you’ll locate the link to some internet sites that we feel you need to visit[…]

サブコンテンツ

おすすめ商品

このページの先頭へ